Perhaps probably the most recognizable piece of knickknack worn by the Sami, the Indigenous individuals of northern Scandinavia, Finland and western Russia, is a spherical brooch recognized amongst many Sami because the risku. A round badge surrounded by a sequence of small ornamental discs, it has been worn for hundreds of years by Sami women and men as a fastening for shawls and scarves. And it embodies the shut relationship between the Sami and silver that dates to the Middle Ages.
‘Close to My Heart’
When she isn’t herding reindeer within the fells of northern Sweden, Erica Huuva makes jewellery that celebrates her Sami heritage. She first fell in love with jewellery making in 2003 whereas on a two-year crafting course, launched her model in 2006 and now has two studios that produce her work. Ms. Huuva, 40, has earned approval for items which can be modern and fashionable but incorporate a few of the historic design motifs present in early Sami jewellery and handicrafts. “The making of traditional risku brooches lies very close to my heart,” Ms. Huuva wrote in an electronic mail. “As a wearer, when you carry the risku brooch on your chest, it is also a sign and a way to proudly carry your culture.”
The risku may be worn as on a regular basis jewellery, however it normally is an adjunct to Sami gown on particular events. It additionally performs a job within the conventional Sami marriage ceremony ceremony: A bride might put on a number of brooches borrowed from members of the family and even rented from an area jeweler as a result of folklore holds that silver shields its wearers from evil spirits whereas additionally attracting abundance and good luck. According to the Sami Museum and Nature Center Siida in northern Finland, risku are sometimes inherited or given as christening or affirmation items. They can value wherever from a pair hundred to a number of thousand euros, relying on their measurement and supplies.
Historians consider the brooch’s design depicts the solar crossing the nightless summer season sky above Sapmi, the Sami cultural territory that stretches from the fjords and mountains of northern Norway to the marshes and lake-dotted plains of Russia’s Kola Peninsula. (Today, a few of the roughly 80,000 Sami reside within the territory.) Exactly when the risku first appeared in its present type shouldn’t be recognized, however historians on the University of Oulu in Finland consider it advanced from oval brooches crafted in prehistoric instances from reindeer horn, which regularly displayed carved symbols of the solar.
Silver and the Sami
It is unclear when silver first entered Sami communities, however archaeological findings recommend it appeared within the early Middle Ages by means of commerce, largely alongside the coasts of Norway. Its presence elevated with the event of the Hanseatic business commerce community, by means of which Sami reindeer trappers traded meat and hides for silver and silver jewellery from Europe.
In the latter Middle Ages, because the reindeer inhabitants dwindled, the Sami started to cultivate and herd the animals to keep up their livelihood. The advance introduced extra wealth to the communities, and silver turned an emblem of prosperity and even a type of foreign money. Over time, the Sami turned expert silversmiths, and crafting jewellery from silver joined a longstanding custom of handicraft recognized within the Northern Sami language as duodji.
A brand new technology of younger Sami, together with Ms. Huuva, produce riskus that includes fashionable adornments like coloured gems and crystals. Carved reindeer horn and different native supplies are utilized by others, just like the Finnish silversmith Sami Laiti, son of the well-known Sami artist and craftsman Petteri Laiti. Elle Valkeapaa, one other Finnish artisan, adorns her risku items with a traditional birch-root wrapping technique that has develop into her signature.